Promoting Excellence : ESRD Table of Contents : Palliative Care in End-Stage Renal Disease

Advance Care Planning

Cohen LM, McCue J, Germain M, Woods A. Denying the Dying: Advance Directives and Dialysis Discontinuation. Psychosomatics 1997; 38: 27-34.

Cohen LM, Woods A, McCue J. The Challenge of Advance Directives and ESRD. Dial Transplant 1991; 20: 593-594, 614.

Germain MJ, Cohen L. Supportive Care for Patients with Renal Disease: Time for Action. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38(4): 884-886.

Hines SC, Glover JJ, Holley JL, Babrow AS, Badzek LA, Moss AH. Dialysis Patients' Preferences for Advance Care Planning and End-of-Life Decision-Making. Ann Intern Med 1999; 130: 825-828.

Holley JL, Hines SC, Glover JJ, Babrow AS, Badzek LA, Moss AH. Failure of Advance Care Planning to Elicit Patients' Preferences for Withdrawal from Dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33: 688-693.

Holley JL, Nespor S, Rault R. Chronic In-Center Hemodialysis Patients' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Towards Advance Directives. J Am Soc Nephrol 1993; 3: 1405-1408.

Holley JL, Nespor S, Rault R. The Effects of Providing Chronic Hemodialysis Patients Written Material on Advance Directives. Am J Kidney Dis 1993; 22: 413-418.

Holley JL, Stackiewicz L, Dacko C, Rault R. Factors Influencing Dialysis Patients' Completion of Advance Directives. Am J Kidney Dis 1997; 30: 356-360.

Levinsky NG, Rettig RA. The Medicare End-Stage Renal Disease Program. A Report from the Institute of Medicine. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:1143-1148.

Loftin LP, Beumer C. Collaborative End-of-Life Decision-Making in End Stage Renal Disease. ANNA J 1998; 25(6): 615- 616, 597.

Patient Services Committee, National Kidney Foundation. Implementing Advance Directives: Suggested Guidelines for Dialysis Facilities, 1993 [Co-authors: Coleman WR, King K.]

Perry E, Swartz R, Wheelock-Smith L, Westbrook J, Buck C. Why is it Difficult for Staff to Discuss Advance Directives with Chronic Dialysis Patients? J Am Soc Neph 1996; 7(10): 2160-2168.

Singer PA. Advance Care Planning in Dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33: 980-991.

Singer PA and the ESRD Network of New England. Nephrologists' Experience with and Attitudes Toward Decisions to Forego Dialysis. J Am Soc Neph 1992; 2:1235-1240.

Swartz R, Perry E. Advance Directives are Associated with “Good Deaths” in Chronic Dialysis Patients. J Am Soc Neph 1993; 3:1623-1630.

Swartz R, Perry E. Advance Directives in ESRD Inherently Involve Family and Staff. Adv Ren Repl Ther 1998; 5: 109-119.

Swartz R, Perry E. Medical Family: A New View of the Relationship Between Chronic Dialysis Patients and Staff Arising from Discussions about Advance Directives. J Wom Health 1999; 8: 1147-1153.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Do Not Resuscitate Orders

Foulks CJ, Holley JL, Moss AH. The Use of CPR: How Nephrologists and Internists Differ. Am J Kidney Dis 28: 379-83, 1991.

Germain MJ, Cohen L. Supportive Care for Patients with Renal Disease: Time for Action. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38(4): 884-886.

Holley JL, Finucane TE, Moss AH. Dialysis Patients' Attitudes about Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Stopping Dialysis. Am J Nephrol 1989; 9: 245-251.

Moss AH, Holley JL, Upton MB. Outcome of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Dialysis Patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 1992; 3: 238-43.

Moss AH, Hozayen O, King K, Holley JL, Schmidt RJ. Attitudes of Patients Toward Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Dialysis Unit. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38(4): 847-852.

Moss AH, MacKay K. Deciding Resuscitation Status with Dialysis Patients and Their Families: A Tale of Two Cases. Seminars in Dialysis 1994; 7: 347-350.

Rogers K, Crawford D, Tzamaloukas AH. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Preferences of Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis. Dial Transplant 1990; 19: 182-184.

Stopping Dialysis – Ethical and Legal Issues

Badzek LA, Cline HS, Moss AH, Hines SC. Inappropriate Use of Dialysis for Some Elderly Patients: Nephrology Nurses' Perceptions and Concerns. Nephrol Nurs J 2000; 27: 462-470.

Bowman KW, Singer PA. End-of-Life Care in Dialysis. In: Levinsky NG, ed. Ethics and the Kidney. New York, NY, Oxford University, 2001, pp 110-129.

Cassel CK, Moss AH, Rettig, RA, Lewinsky NG. Ethical Issues. In Rettig RA, Lewinsky NG, eds. Kidney Failure and the Federal Government. Washington, DC, National Academy Press 1991, pp 51-61.

Cooper MC. Ethical Decision-Making in Nephrology Nursing for End-of-Life Care: A Responsibility and Opportunity. ANNA J 1998; 25(6): 603-609, 614.

Cummings NB. Withholding and Withdrawing Dialysis. Mediguide to Nephrology 1998; 6:1-6.

Dossetor J, Kjellstrand, C. Ethical Problems in Selection for Dialysis and Transplantation, in Kjellstrand C, Dossetor J, eds. Ethical Problems in Dialysis and Transplantation. The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992, pp 37-52.

Foulks CJ, Holley JL, Moss AH. Nephrologists' Reported Attitudes About Factors Influencing Recommendations to Initiate or Withdraw Dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 1991; 1: 1284-8.

Hines SC, Babrow AS, Badzek L, Moss AH. Communication and Problematic Integration in End-of-Life Decisions: Dialysis Decisions Among the Elderly. J Health Commun 1997; 9:199-217.

Hines SC, Badzek LA, Moss AH. Informed Consent Among Chronically Ill Elderly: Assessing its (in) Adequacy and Predictors. J Appl Commun Res 1997; 25:151-169.

Hines SC, Moss AH, Badzek L. Being Involved or Just Being Informed? Communication Preferences of Seriously Ill, Older Adults. Commun Quarterly 1997; 45: 268-281.

Hines S, Moss AH, McKenzie J. Prolonging Life or Prolonging Death: Communication's Role in Difficult Dialysis Decisions. J Health Commun 1997; 9: 369-388.

Holley JL. What are the Important Ethical Issues in Chronic Dialysis? Seminars in Dialysis 1990; 3: 212-213.

Holley JL, Finucane TE, Moss AH. Dialysis Patients' Attitudes About Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Stopping Dialysis. Am J Nephrol 1989; 9: 245-251.

Husebye D, Kjellstrand CM. Denial of and Withdrawal from Dialysis in the Old. Int J Art if Organs 1987; 10: 166-172.

Keating RF, Moss AH, Sorkin MI, Paris JJ. Stopping Dialysis of an Incompetent Patient over the Family's Objection: Is it Ever Ethical? J Am Soc Nephrol 1994; 4: 1879-8.

Kjellstrand CM: The Impossible Choice. JAMA 257: 233 1987

Kjellstrand CM. Is One Allowed to Stop Artificial Organs and Let Patients Die? Trans Amer Soc Artif Int Organs 1987; 32(2): 671.

Kjellstrand CM. The Physician’s Duties in Smoothing the Avenues of Death. Trans Amer Soc Artif Int Organs 1987; 32(2): 676-679.

Kjellstrand CM. Choosing Death: Withdrawal Without Medical Reason from Chronic Dialysis. Acta Med Scand 1988; 223:181-186.

Kjellstrand CM. Who Should Decide About your Death? Editorial JAMA 1992; 267: 103-104.

Kjellstrand C. Stopping Dialysis, Practical Aspects and Cultural Differences. In Kjellstrand C, Dossetor J, eds. Ethical Problems in Dialysis and Transplantation. The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992, pp 105-118.

Kjellstrand C: Stopping Dialysis - Different Views, in Oreopolous D, Michelis M, Herschorn S, eds. Nephrology and Urology in the Aged Patient. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993, pp 563-568.

Kjellstrand C. High Technology Medicine and the Old: The Dialysis Example. J Intern Med 1996; 239: 195-210.

Kjellstrand, C. Duration and Adequacy of Dialysis: The Science is Easy, the Ethics very Difficult. ASAIO Journal 1997; 43: 220-224.

Kjellstrand, C. Withdrawing from Dialysis: A Rational Decision for some Diabetic ESRD Patients. Seminars in Dialysis 1997; 10: 235-237.

Kjellstrand C. Giving Up – Discontinuation of Dialysis. In Friedman E, L'Esperance FA, eds. Diabetic Renal-Retinal Syndrome, Fifth Edition. The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998, pp 269-278.

Kjellstrand C, Cranford R, Kaye M. Stopping Dialysis: Practice and Cultural, Religious and Legal Aspects. In Winchester J, Jacobs C, Koch K, Kjellstrand C, eds. Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis, Fourth Edition. The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996, Chap. 63, pp 1480-1501.

Kjellstrand C, Dossetor, J: Stopping Dialysis: An Ethical Analysis, in Kjellstrand C, Dossetor J, eds. Ethical Problems in Dialysis and Transplantation. The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992, pp 147-155.

Kjellstrand CM, Neu SE. The Controversy of Terminating Life-Supporting Chronic Dialysis Therapy. Contemporary Dialysis and Nephrology 1986; 11: 48-50.

Kjervik DK, Badzek L. Legal Considerations at the End of Life. ANNA J 1998; 25(6): 593-597.

Leggat JE, Port FK . To Be or Not To Be: The Decision to Withdraw or be Withdrawn from Dialysis: Authors' Reply. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33: 603-606.

Leggat JE, Swartz RD, Port FK. Withdrawal from Dialysis: A Review with an Emphasis on the Black Experience. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1997; 4: 22-29.

Lew SQ, Cohn F, Cohen LM, Kimmel,PL. Ethical Issues in Aging and Renal Disease. Adv Ren Repl Ther 2000; 7(1): 63-69.

Lowance DL. The Factors and Guidelines to be Considered in Offering Treatment to Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Personal Opinion. Am J Kid Dis 1993; 21, 6: 679-683.

McCue JD, Cohen LM. Freud's Physician-Assisted Death. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159:1521-5.

McKenzie JK, Moss AH, Feest TG, Stocking CB, Siegler M. Dialysis Decision-Making in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 31:12-18.

Moss AH. Ethics and End Stage Renal Disease: A Life-Cycle Perspective. Nephrol Nurs Today 1991; 1:1-7.

Moss AH. Dialysis Decisions and the Elderly. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 1994; 10: 463-473.

Moss AH. To Use Dialysis Appropriately: The Emerging Consensus on Patient Selection Guidelines. Adv Ren Repl Ther 1995; 2: 175-183.

Moss AH. Kidney Dialysis. In Reich WT, ed. Encyclopedia of Bioethics, Revised Edition. New York, NY, Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1995, pp 1317-1324.

Moss AH: Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Care Option for Dying Patients? Nephrol News Issues 1996; 10: 42-44.

Moss AH. Patient Selection for Dialysis and the Decision to Withdraw Dialysis. In Brady HR, Wilcox CS, eds. Therapy in Nephrology and Hypertension. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, Co., 1999, pp. 598-602.

Moss AH. At Least We do not Feel Guilty: Managing Conflict with Families over Dialysis Discontinuation. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 31: 868-883.

Moss AH. Shared Decision-Making in Dialysis: The New RPA/ASN Guideline on Appropriate Initiation and Withdrawal of Treatment. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 37(5): 1081-1091.

Moss AH, Cassel CK. What are the Important Ethical Issues in Chronic Dialysis? Seminars in Dialysis 3:1990; 213-215.

Moss AH, Rettig RA, Cassel CK. A Proposal for Guidelines for Patient Acceptance to and Withdrawal from Dialysis: A Follow-Up to the Institute of Medicine ESRD Report. ANNA J 1993; 20: 557-561.

Moss AH, Stocking CB, Sachs, GA, Siegler M. Variations in the Attitudes of Dialysis Unit Directors Toward Decisions to Withhold and Withdraw Dialysis. J Am Soc Neph 1993; 4:229-234.

Munoz JE, Kjellstrand CM. Withdrawing Life Support: Do Families and Physicians Decide as Patients Do? Nephron 1988; 48: 201-205.

Neu S, Kjellstrand CM. Stopping Long-Term Dialysis: An Empirical Study of Withdrawal of Life-Supporting Treatment. N Engl J Med 1996; 314: 14-20.

Patient Services Committee of the National Kidney Foundation. The Initiation or Withdrawal of Dialysis in End-Stage Renal Disease: Guidelines for the Health Care Team. New York, NY, National Kidney Foundation, 1996 [Co-authors: Coleman WR, King K.]

Perry E, Buck C, Newsome J, Berger C, Messana J, Swartz R. Dialysis Staff Influence Patients in Formulating Their Advance Directives. Am J Kidney Dis 1995; 25(2): 262-268.

Renal Physicians Association and American Society of Nephrology. RPA/ASN Position on Quality Care at the End of Life. Adopted April 14, 1997.

Renal Physicians Association/American Society of Nephrology. Clinical Practice Guideline on Shared Decision-Making in the Appropriate Initiation of and Withdrawal from Dialysis. Washington (DC), Renal Physicians Association; 2000 Jan. 124 p. [302 references]

Rettig RA, Cassel CK, Moss AH. Is it Time again for Patient Selection Criteria? An IOM View. Nephrol News Issues 1992; 6: 21-23.

Roberts J, Kjellstrand CM. Choosing Death: Withdrawal Without Medical Reason from Chronic Dialysis. Acta Med Scand 1988; 223: 181-186.

Roberts J, Snyder R, Kjellstrand CM. Withdrawal of Life Support--The Survivors. Acta Med Scand 1998; 224: 141-8.

Sekkarie MA, Cosma M, Mendelssohn D. Nonreferral and Nonacceptance to Dialysis by Primary Care Physicians and Nephrologists in Canada and the United States. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38(1): 36-41.

Sekkarie MA, Moss AH. Withholding and Withdrawing Dialysis: The Role of Physician Specialty and Education and Patient Functional Status. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 31: 464-472.

Sinnard JC: Patient Withdrawal and Staff Understanding: Two Different Perspectives. Nephrol Nurs J 2001; 28: 251-252.

Swartz R, Perry E, Schneider C, Burdette T, Curtis G, O’Neil M. The Option to Withdraw from Chronic Dialysis Treatment. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1994; 1(3): 264-273.

Tulsky JA, Snyder L. Deciding how much Care is too Much: Ethics Case Explores Futility and Appropriate Treatment. ACP Observer March 1997.

Stopping Dialysis – Medical Management

Bajwa K, Szabo E, Kjellstrand, C. Stopping Dialysis: A Prospective Study of Risk Factors. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156: 2571-2577.

Barrett B, Parfrey P, Morgan J, Barre P, Fine A, Goldstein M, Handa P, Jindal K, Kjellstrand C, Levin A, Mandin H, Muirhead N, Richardson R. Prediction of Early Death in End Stage Renal Disease Patients Starting Dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1997; 29: 214-222.

Cohen LM, Fischel S, Germain M, Woods A, Braden GL, McCue J. Ambivalence and Dialysis Discontinuation. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1996; 18: 431-435.

Cohen LM, Germain M, Poppel DM, Pekow PS, Woods A, Kjellstrand CM. Dying Well After Discontinuing the Life-Support Treatment of Dialysis. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 2513-2518.

Cohen LM, Germain M, Poppel DM, Woods A, Kjellstrand CM. Dialysis Discontinuation and Palliative Care. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 36: 140-144.

Cohen LM, McCue J, Germain M, Kjellstrand CM. Dialysis Discontinuation: A "Good" Death? Arch Intern Med 1995; 155: 42-47.

Cohen LM, Poppel DM, Cohn GM, Reiter GS. A Very Good Death: Measuring Quality of Dying in End-State Renal Disease. J Palliat Med 2001; 4(2): 167-172.

Cohen LM, Reiter GS, Poppel DM, Germain MJ. Renal Palliative Care. In Addington-Hall JM, Higginson IJ, eds. Palliative Care for Non-Cancer Patients. Oxford University Press-USA, 2001.

Cohen LM, Steinberg MD, Hails KC, Dobscha SK, Fischel SV. The Psychiatric Evaluation of Death-Hastening Requests: Lessons from Dialysis Discontinuation. Psychosomatics 2000; 41(3): 195-203.[Commentary on pp 193-194.]

Collins AJ, Hanson G, Umen A, Kjellstrand CM, Keshaviah P. Changing Risk-Factor Demographics in ESRD Patients Entering Hemodialysis and the Impact on Long-Term Mortality. Am J Kidney Dis 1990; 15: 422-432.

DeVelasco R, Dinwiddie LC. Management of the Patient with ESRD after Withdrawal from Dialysis. ANNA J 1998; 25(6): 611-614.

Dinwiddie LC. The Dilemma of "The Last Access Site". [Clinical Consult Column]. ANNA J 1998; 25(6): 636,659. Dinwiddie LC. Collaborative Care with Hospice to Help Richard and Irene: A Case Study. ANNA J 1998; 25(6): 631-639.

Holley JL. Withdrawing from Dialysis: Clinical Experiences. Contemporary Dialysis & Nephrology 1998; 19: 29-30.

King K. Withdrawal from Dialysis. EDTNA/ERCA J 1997; 23(1).

Leggat JE, Bloembergen WE, Levine G, Hulbert-Shearon TE, Port FK. An Analysis of Risk Factors for Withdrawal from Dialysis Before Death. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997; 8: 1755-1763.

Leggat JE, Port FK, Bloembergen WE. Survival in Hemodialysis Patients by Race and Gender: Cause Specific Mortality and the Effect of Withdrawal. [Presented at the American Society of Nephrology meeting, San Antonio, TX, 1997.]

Leggat JE, Port FK, Bloembergen WE. Withdrawal from Dialysis: The Relationship with Comorbid Conditions, Albumin, and Dose of Dialysis. [Presented at the American Society of Nephrology meeting, San Antonio, TX 1997.]

Moss AH. A New Clinical Practice Guideline on Initiation and Withdrawal of Dialysis that makes Explicit the Role of Palliative Medicine. J Palliat Med 2000; 3: 253-260.

Moss AH. Shared Decision-Making in Dialysis: The New RPA/ASN Guideline on Appropriate Initiation and Withdrawal of Treatment. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 37(5): 1081-1091.

Neely KJ, Roxe DM. Palliative Care/Hospice and the Withdrawal of Dialysis. J Palliat Med 2000; 3: 57-67.

Nissenson AR. Assessing the Effects of Peritoneal Dialysis on the Health-Related Quality of Life of the Adult Patient. Perit Dial Int 1997; 17 (Suppl 3): 532-534.

Renal Physicians Association/American Society of Nephrology. Clinical Practice Guideline on Shared Decision-Making in the Appropriate Initiation of and Withdrawal from Dialysis. Washington (DC), Renal Physicians Association; 2000 Jan. 124 p. [302 references]

Sekkarie MA, Moss, AH. Withholding and Withdrawing Dialysis: The Role of Physician Specialty and Education and Patient Functional Status. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 31: 464-472.

Pain & Symptom Management

Aronoff GR, Berns, JS, Brier ME, Golper TA, Morrison G, Singer I, Swan SK, Bennett WM. Drug Prescribing in Renal Failure: Dosing Guidelines for Adults. Fourth Edition. ACP-ASIM, 1999.

Balaskas E, Bamihas G, Karamouzis M, Voyiatzis G, Tourkantonis A. Histamine and Serotonin in Uremic Pruritus: Effect of Ondansetron in CAPD-Pruritic Patients. Nephron 1998; 78: 395-402.

Blumenkrantz, MJ. Nutrition. In: Daugirdas JT, Ing TS, eds. Handbook of Dialysis, 2nd Edition. Boston: Little, Brown, 1994, 374-400.

Boccanfuso JA, et al. The Effects of Megestrol Acetate on Nutritional Parameters in a Dialysis Population. J of Renal Nutrition 2000; 10: 36-43.

Bonomini V, Coli L, Scolari MP. Profiling Dialysis: A New Approach to Dialysis Intolerance. Nephron 1997; 75: 1-6.

Breneman D, Cardone J, Blumsack R. Topical Capsaicin for Treatment of Hemodialysis-Related Pruritus. J Am Acad Derm 1992; 25: 91-94.

Casarett DJ, Inouye SK. Diagnosis and Management of Delirium Near the End of Life. For the ACP-ASIM Consensus Panel. Intern Med 2001; 135: 32-4.

DeMarchi S, Ceddhin E, Villallta D. Relief of Pruritus and Decreases in Plasma Histamine Concentrations During Erythropoietin Therapy in Patients with Uremia. NE J Med 1992; 326: 969-974.

Dheenan S, et al. Effects of Sertraline on Dialysis Hypotension. Am J Kid Dis 1998; 31: 624-630.

Feinstein E. The Skin. In: Daugirdas F & Ing T, eds. Handbook of Dialysis, Edition 2. New York: Little, Brown, 1994, 583-589.

Francos G, Kauh V, Grittlen S. Elevated Plasma Histamine in Chronic Uremia: Effects of Ketotifen on Pruritus. Int J Derm 1991; 30: 884-889.

Giovanetti S, Barsotti G, Cupisti A. Oral Activated Charcoal in Patients with Uremic Pruritus. Nephron 1995; 70: 193-196.

Grattan, CEH, et al. Plasmapheresis for Severe, Unremitting, Chronic Uticaria. Lancet 1992; 339: 1078-1080.

Hiroshige K, Kabashima N, Masayuki T. Optimal Dialysis Improves Uremic Pruritus. Am J Kid Dis 1995; 25: 413-419.

Kardinal C, et al. A Controlled Trial of Cyprohheptadine in Cancer Patients with Anorexia. Cancer 1990; 65: 2657-2662.

Kaufman AM, et al. Effects of Controlled Blood Cooling on Hemodynamic Stability and Urea Kinetics During High-Efficiency Hemodialysis. J Am Soc Neph 1998; 9: 877-883.

Levy NB, Cohen LM. End-Stage Renal Disease and its Treatment: Dialysis and Transplantation. In Stoudemeyer A, Fogel B, Greenberg D, eds. Psychiatric Care of the Medical Patient, Second Edition. New York, Oxford University Press, 1999.

Lien YH, Ruffenach SJ. Low Dose Megestrol Increases Serum Albumin in Malnourished Dialysis Patients. Int J Artif Organs 1996; 19: 147-150.

Lin S, et al. Effect of Pramipexole in Treatment of Resistant Restless Legs Syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc 1998; 73: 497-500.

Liwiecki E, Rahman F. Pruritus, a Manifestation of Iron Deficiency. JAMA 1976; 236: 2319-2320.

Masi C, Cohen E. Dialysis Efficacy and Itching in Renal Failure. Nephron 1992; 62: 257-261.

Massry S, Popovtzer M, Coburn J. Intractable Pruritus as a Manifestation of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Uremia. NE J Med 1968; 279: 697-700.

Matsumoto M, Ichimaru K, Horie A. Pruritus and Mast Cell Proliferation of the Skin in End Stage Renal Failure. Clin Nephrol 1985; 23: 285-288.

Morton C, Lafferty M, Hau C, Henderson I, Jones M & Lowe, J. Pruritis and Skin Hydration During Dialysis. Nephrology, Dialysis & Transplantation 1996; 11: 2031-2036.

Moss AH. Shared Decision-Making in Dialysis: The New RPA/ASN Guideline on Appropriate Initiation and Withdrawal of Treatment. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 37(5): 1081-1091.

Peer G, Kivity S, Agami O, Fireman E, Silverberg D, Blum M, Ianina A. Randomized Crossover Trial of Naltrexone in Uraemic Pruritus. Lancet 1996; 348: 1552-1554.

Ponticelli C, Bencini PL. Uremic Pruritis: A Review. Nephron 1992; 60: 1-5.

Renal Physicians Association/American Society of Nephrology. Clinical Practice Guideline on Shared Decision-Making in the Appropriate Initiation of and Withdrawal from Dialysis. Washington (DC), Renal Physicians Association; 2000 Jan. 124 p. [302 references]

Robertson K, Mueller B. Uremic Pruritis. Am J Health-System Pharmacists 1996; 53: 2159-2170.

Roca AO, et al. Efficacy of Quinine Versus Vitamin E. ASAIO Journal 1992; 38: M481-M485.

Silva S, et al. Thalidomide for the Treatment of Uremic Pruritis: A Crossover Randomized Double-Blind Trial. Nephron 1994; 67: 270-273.

Silverberg D, Iaina A, Reisin E. Cholestyramine in Uraemic Pruritus. Brit Med J 1977; 1: 752-753.

Stockenhuber F, Kurz R, Sertl K, Grimm G, Balcke P. Increased Plasma Histamine Levels in Uraemic Pruritus. Clin Sci 1990; 79: 477-482.

Swan S, Bennett W. Use of Drugs in Patients with Renal Failure. In: Schrier R, Gottschalk C, eds. Diseases of the Kidney, Vol I, Sixth Edition. Boston, New York, Toronto, London; Little, Brown and Company, 1997, 2968-3005.

Tapia L, Cheigh H, David D. Pruritus in Dialysis Patients Treated with Parenteral Lidocaine. NE J of Med 1977; 296: 261-262.

Yatzidis H, Desenis P, Tountas C. Heparin Treatment of Uremic Itching. JAMA 1972; 222: 183.

Psychosocial & Spiritual Support

Cohen LM. End-of-Life Issues in Dialysis and Transplantation. In Matsushita M, Fukunishi I, eds. Cutting-Edge Medicine and Liaison Psychiatry - Psychiatric Problems of Organ Transplantation, Cancer, HIV/AIDS and Genetic Therapy. Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Elsevier Science BV, 1999, pp 149-158.

Cohen LM. Psychiatric Aspects of Renal Transplantation and Dialysis. In Rundell JR, Wise M, eds. American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, Second Edition. Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Press, 1999.

Cohen LM. Renal disease, in Rundell JR, Wise M, eds. American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Press, 1996, pp 573-578.

Cohen LM, Germain M, Woods A, Gilman ED, McCue J. Patient Attitudes and Psychological Considerations in Dialysis Discontinuation. Psychosomatics 1993; 34: 395-401.

Dingwall RR. Living with Renal Failure: The Psychological Issues. EDTNA/ ERCA J 1997; 23(4): 28-30, 35.

FurrLA: Psycho-Social Aspects of Serious Renal Disease and Dialysis: A Review of the Literature. Soc Work Health Care 1998; 27(3): 97-118.

Germino BB. When a Chronic Illness Becomes Terminal. ANNA J 1998; 25(6): 579-582.

Husebye D, Styrvoky T, Westlie L, Kjellstrand CM. Psychological, Social and Somatic Prognostic Indicators in old Patients on Chronic Dialysis. Arch Intern Med 1987; 147: 1921-1924.

Kapron K, Perry E, Bowman T, Swartz R. Peer Resource Consulting: Redesigning a New Future. Adv Ren Repl Ther 1997; 4: 267-274.

Kimmel PL, Peterson RA, Weihs KL, Simmens SJ, Alleyne S, Cruz I, Veis JH. Psychosocial Factors, Behavioral Compliance and Survival in Urban Hemodialysis Patients. Kid Int 1998; 54: 245-254.

Levenson JL, Glocheski S. Psychological Factors Affecting End-Stage Renal Disease: A Review. Psychosomatics 1991; 32(4): 382-389.

Levy NB, Cohen LM. Psychiatric Considerations. In Massry SG, Glassock RJ, eds. Textbook of Nephrology, Fourth Edition. Williams and Wilkins. (In Press).

Shears T. Holding On, Letting Go: When Living a Good Life can Mean Dying a Good Death. Advance, University of Michigan Medical Center, Fall 1990, 2-13.

Soltys FG, Brookins M, Seney J. Why Hospice? The Case for ESRD Patients and their Families. ANNA J 1998; 25(6): 619-624, 578.

Swartz R, Perry E, Prochaska C, Boyd S, Brennan K, Cozzi E, Sorrentino J, Fisher M, Matthews D, Leonard M. Breakdowns on the Path of Chronic Illness: Opportunities for Learning. Adv Ren Repl Ther 1998; 5: 315-323.

Woods A, Berzoff J, Cohen LM, Cait CA, Pekow P, Germain M, Poppel D. The Family Perspective of End-of-Life Care in End-Stage Renal Disease: The Role of the Social Worker. J Nephrol Soc Work 1999; 19: 9-21.

Quality of Life

Ahmed S, Addicott C, Qureshi, M, Pendleton N, Clague JE, Horan MA. Opinions of Elderly People on Treatment of End-Stage Renal Disease. Gerontology 1999; 45(3): 156-159.

Anandarajah G, Hight E. Spirituality and Medical Practice: Using the HOPE Questions as a Practical Tool for Spiritual Assessment. Am Fam Physician 2001; 83: 81-8, 89.

Cagney KA, Wu AW, Fink NE, Jenckes MW, Meyer KB, Bass EB, Powe NR. Formal Literature Review of Quality-of-Life Instruments used in End-Stage Renal Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 36: 327-341.

Edgell ET, Coons SJ, Carter WB, Kallich JD, Mapes D, Damush TM, Hays RD. A Review of Health-Related Quality-of-Life Measures used in End-Stage Renal Disease. Clin Ther 1996; 18: 887-938.

Hays RD, Kallich J.D, Mapes DL, Coons AJ, Carter WB. Development of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) Instrument. Quality of Life Research 1994; 3: 329-338.

Jofre R, Lopez-Gomez JM, Valdereabano F. Quality of Life for Patient Groups. Kid Int 2000; 17(Suppl 74): S121-S130.

Killingworth A, Van den Akker O. The Quality of Life of Renal Dialysis Patients: Trying to Find the Missing Measurement. Int J Nurs Studies 1996; 33(1): 107-120.

Kimmel PA. Just Whose Quality of Life is it Anyway? Controversies and Consistencies in Measurements of Quality of Life. Kidney Int 2000; 57S: 113-120.

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