Promoting Excellence : Cost Accounting Recommendations to the Field : End Notes

  1. Paying for Care at the End of Life: Implications for Individuals and Families, Health Care Providers, and Society. New York, NY: Grantmakers Concerned with Care at the End of Life, 1998.

  2. Institute of Medicine. Approaching Death: Improving Care at the End of Life. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.

  3. Byock I. Dying Well: Peace and Possibilities at the End of Life. New York: Riverhead Books, 1997.

  4. The Challenge of End-of-Life Care: Moving Toward Metanoia? Washington, D.C.: Results of a Last Acts® Financing Task Force Retreat, 1997.

  5. United Hospital Fund. "Hospital Palliative Care Initiative."

  6. Emanuel EJ and Emanuel LL. "The Economics of Dying: The Illusion of Cost Savings at the End of Life." New England Journal of Medicine, 330(8): 540-544, 1994.

  7. Emanuel MB, Phillips RS, et al. "Seriously Ill Hospitalized Adults: Do we Spend Less on Older Patients?" Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 44: 1043-1048, 1996.

  8. Covinsky KE, Landefeld CS, Teno J, et al. "The Impact of Serious Illness on Patients' Families." Journal of the American Medical Association, 156: 1737-1741, 1994.

  9. Hogan C, Lunney J, Gabel J and Lynn J. "Medicare Beneficiaries' Costs of Care in the Last Year of Life." Health Affairs, 20(4): 188-195, 2001.

  10. Lubitz JD, Beebe JD and Baker C. "Longevity and Medicare Expenditures." New England Journal of Medicine, 332(15): 999-1003, 1995.

  11. Lubitz JD and Riley GF. "Trends in Medicare Payments in the Last Year of Life." New England Journal of Medicine, 328: 1092-1096, 1993.

  12. Lubitz JD and Prihoda R. "The Use and Costs of Medicare Services in the Last 2 years of Life." Health Care Finance Review 5(3): 117-131, 1984.

  13. McCall N. "Utilization and Costs of Medicare Services by Beneficiaries in Their Last Year of Life." Medical Care, 22(4): 329-342, 1984.

  14. MacDonald N. "Suffering and Dying in Cancer Patients: Research Frontiers in Controlling Confusion, Cachexia and Dyspnea." Western Journal of Medicine, 163(3): 278-286, 1995.

  15. Christakis, Nicholas. A Death Foretold: Prophecy and Prognosis in Medical Care. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.

  16. Foley KM. "The Epidemiology of Death: The How, Why, Where and Symptoms of Dying." In Summary of Committee Views and Workshop Examining the Feasibility of an Institute of Medicine Study of Dying, Decision Making, and Appropriate Care at the End of Life, IOM Committee for Feasibility Study on Care at the End of Life. Edited by M.M. Field. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Medicine, 1994.

The M.C. Escher piece at the top of this page is titled "Whirlpools."

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Promoting Excellence in End-of-Life Care was a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation dedicated to long-term changes in health care institutions to substantially improve care for dying people and their families. Visit for more resources.

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